Information about the late-time Universe is imprinted on the small scale CMB as photons travel to us from the surface of last scattering. Several processes are at play and small scale fluctuations are very rich and non-Gaussian in nature. I will review some of the most important effects and I will focus on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect and gravitational lensing. I will discuss how a combination of measurements can probe velocity fields at cosmological distances and inform us on cluster energetics. I will also show recent measurements of weak lensing of the CMB and how they can help us interpret intriguing discrepancies in cosmological parameters between the high and low redshift Universe.
The huge separation between the Planck scale and typical laboratory scales makes it extremely difficult to detect quantum gravitational effects; however, the situation is in principle much more favourable in cosmology. In particular, the Planck and Hubble scales were only separated by about 5 to 6 orders of magnitude during inflation. This motivates looking for present-day signatures of Planck-scale physics from the early universe. The question, then, is what quantum gravitational effects should we look for, and what are their observational signatures? Here I will discuss predictions for how a generic, quantum gravity-motivated, natural ultraviolet cutoff manifests in primordial power spectra. The cutoff is model-independent, both in the sense that it does not rely on a particular UV completion of quantum gravity, nor does it assume a particular model of inflation. The predicted signature consists of small oscillations that are superimposed on the conventional primordial power spectra, where the template waveform is parameterized by the location of the cutoff between the Planck and Hubble scales. This will allow experiments to place new rigorous bounds on the scale at which quantum gravity effects become important.