This talk is concerned with the noise-insensitive transmission of quantum information. For this purpose, the sender incorporates redundancy by mapping a given initial quantum state to a messenger state on a larger-dimensional Hilbert space. This encoding scheme allows the receiver to recover part of the initial information if the messenger system is corrupted by interaction with its environment. Our noise model for the transmission leaves a part of the quantum information unchanged, that is, we assume the presence of a noiseless subsystem or of a decoherence-free subspace. We address the case when the noiseless component cannot contain all the quantum information to be transmitted, and investigate how to best spread the information in a quantum state across the noise-susceptible components. (Joint work with David Kribs and Vern Paulsen.)
Nanostructured materials continue to be the focus of intense research due to their promise of innumerable practical applications as well as advancing the fundamental understanding of these intriguing materials. From physics, to chemistry, to biology, to computer science, across the engineering disciplines and into the imagination of the general event, nanotechnology has become an extremely popular buzzword that represents both hope and hype to many people. This talk will outline and describe the exploding field of nanotechnology, including its potential for promising new applications, and for negative societal implications that cause many to fear it. Recent work in our group in the area of integration of nanoscale structures with silicon will be outlined to show the scope and approaches to building nanoscale architectures; the applications of these frameworks include molecular computing, nanoscale sensing platforms, integration of silicon with biology, and intricate structures with unforeseen properties.
We will look at the axioms of quantum mechanics as expressed, for example, in the book by M. A. Nielsen and I. L. Chung ("Quantum Computation and Quantum Information"). We then take a critical look at these axioms, raising several questions as we go. In particular, we will look at the possible informational completeness property of the family of operators that we measure. We will propose physical solutions based on the results of quantum mechanics on phase space and the measurement of quantum particles by quantum mechanical means. We illustrate this with both momentum-position measurements and spin measurements.
A variety of physical phenomena involve multiple length and time scales. Some interesting examples of multiple-scale phenomena are: (a) the mechanical behavior of crystals and in particular the interplay of chemistry and mechanical stress in determining the macroscopic brittle or ductile response of solids; (b) the molecular-scale forces at interfaces and their effect in macroscopic phenomena like wetting and friction; (c) the alteration of the structure and electronic properties of macromolecular systems due to external forces, as in stretched DNA nanowires or carbon nanotubes. In these complex physical systems, the changes in bonding and atomic configurations at the microscopic, atomic level have profound effects on the macroscopic properties, be they of mechanical or electrical nature. Linking the processes at the two extremes of the length scale spectrum is the only means of achieving a deeper understanding of these phenomena and, ultimately, of being able to control them. While methodologies for describing the physics at a single scale are well developed in many fields of physics, chemistry or engineering, methodologies that couple scales remain a challenge, both from the conceptual point as well as from the computational point. In this presentation I will discuss the development of methodologies for simulations across disparate length scales with the aim of obtaining a detailed description of complex phenomena of the type described above. I will also present illustrative examples, including hydrogen embrittlement of metals, DNA conductivity and translocation through nanopores, and affecting the wettability of surfaces by surface chemical modification.
Inside Harvard College Observatory in 1904, a young woman named Henrietta Swan Leavitt sat hunched over a stack of glass photographic plates, patiently counting stars. The images had been taken by a telescope high in the Peruvian Andes, and Miss Leavitt was given the tedious chore of measuring the brightness of thousands of tiny lights, something that would now be done by machine. Her job title was \'computer,\' but during the next few years she rose above her station as a tabulator of data and discovered a new law, one that would change forever our view of the universe. George Johnson, the author of Miss Leavitt\'s Stars: The Untold Story of the Woman Who Discovered How to Measure the Universe, writes about science for The New York Times from Santa Fe, New Mexico and is winner of the AAAS Science Journalism Award. His other books include A Shortcut Through Time: The Path to the Quantum Computer, Fire in the Mind: Science, Faith, and the Search for Order and Strange Beauty: Murray Gell-Mann and the Revolution in 20th-Century Physics. He is co-director of the Santa Fe Science-Writing Workshop and can be reached on the Web at talaya.net. A graduate of the University of New Mexico and American University, his first reporting job was covering the police beat for the Albuquerque Journal. Miss Leavitt\'s Stars, George Johnson, Leavitt, astronomy, cephoid, Magellanic cloud
Inspired by the notion that the differences between quantum theory and classical physics are best expressed in terms of information theory, Hardy (2001) and Clifton, Bub, and Halvorson (2003) have constructed frameworks general enough to embrace both quantum and classical physics, within which one can invoke principles that distinguish the classical from the quantum. Independently of any view that quantum theory is essentially about quantum information, such frameworks provide a useful tool for exploring the differences between classical and quantum physics, and the relations between the various properties of quantum mechanics that distinguish it from the classical. In particular, we can ask: on which features of quantum physics do our familiar possibility/impossibility theorems depend? It turns out that it is possible to extend the no-cloning theorem and other results, such as the Holevo bound on acquisition of information by a single measurement, beyond the quantum setting.
A cosmological model based on an inhomogeneous D3-brane moving in an AdS_5 X S_5 bulk is introduced. Although there is no special points in the bulk, the brane Universe has a center and is isotropic around it. The model has an accelerating expansion and its effective cosmological constant is inversely proportional to the distance from the center, giving a possible geometrical origin for the smallness of a present-day cosmological constant. Besides, if our model is considered as an alternative of early time acceleration, it is shown that the early stage accelerating phase ends in a dust dominated FRW homogeneous Universe. Mirage-driven acceleration thus provides a dark matter component for the brane Universe final state. We finally show that the model fulfills the current constraints on inhomogeneities.