These lectures will cover the concepts and techniques of effective field theory. I will try to introduce several of the useful techniques which do not usually get covered in the standard QFT courses and books. We will start with the effective field theory aspects of QED, and end with the treatment of general relativity as a quantum field theory using effective field theory techniques.
We present an approach for representing fermionic quantum many-body states using tensor networks, by introducing a change of basis with local unitary gates obtained via compressing fermionic Gaussian states into quantum circuits. These fermionic Gaussian circuits enable efficient disentangling of low-energy states and entanglement renormalization in matrix product states/operators, significantly reducing bond dimension and improving computational efficiency. As a demonstration, we apply this approach to the 1D single impurity Anderson model through suppression of entanglement in both ground states and time-evolved low-lying excited states. We also explore the use of hierarchical compression to generate Gaussian multi-scale entanglement renormalization ansatz (GMERA) circuits and study their emergent coarse-grained physical models in terms of entanglement properties and suitability for time evolution.
Tom Leinster recently introduced a curious notion of entropy modulo p (https://arxiv.org/abs/1903.06961). While entropy has a certain meaning in information theory and physics, mathematically it is simply a function with certain properties. Stating these as axioms, the function is unique. Surprisingly, Leinster shows that a function obeying the same axioms can also be found for "probability distributions" over a finite field, and this function is unique too.
In quantum information, mutually unbiased bases is an important set of measurements and an example of a quantum design. While in odd prime power dimensions their construction is based on a finite field, in dimension 2^n it relies on an unpleasant Galois ring. I will replace this ring by length-2 Witt vectors whose arithmetic involves only finite field operations and Leinster's entropy mod 2. This expresses qubit mutually unbiased bases entirely in terms of a finite field and allows deriving an explicit unitary correspondence between them and the affine plane over this field.