The polarization measurements of particles produced in heavy-ion collisions allow us to study amazing phenomena such as, the collective rotation of the nuclear medium, quark spin-alignment with the global angular momenta, local vs global polarization effects and their evolution when there are drastic changes in the properties of the hot, dense and whirly medium. Recently, measurements by the STAR collaboration at RHIC and the HADES collaboration at GSI, show the rising of Lambda and anti-Lambda global polarization with decreasing collision energy and what seems to be a differentiated peak with a sharp decrease at a lower bound in collision energy. In this talk I will report on our recent work where we predict this differentiated peak behavior using a core-corona model, so that measuring the polarization of hyperons becomes a tool to learn about strangeness availability in the medium created in heavy-ion collisions for different initial conditions. I will also present a few new developments we have made to probe the strong magnetic field produced early after the collision with primordial photons and mention other relevant signals that we are working on in order to learn about the critical end-point in the QCD phase diagram.
In this talk, I will present a new tool to constrain low-energy Wilson coefficients in a scalar EFT (scalar for simplicity's sake but the range of applicability is much wider) based on the requirement that such theories should respect causality. Causality will be defined in the sense that no low-energy observer should be able to measure any resolvable time-advance resulting from a scattering event. I will show that these so-called causality bounds are in remarkable agreement with previously derived positivity bounds (where low energy constraints on the 4-point amplitude make use of physical assumptions of the UV completion of the EFT), while being considerably simpler and a better candidate to get cosmological and black hole gravitational bounds.
This course uses quantum electrodynamics (QED) as a vehicle for covering several more advanced topics within quantum field theory, and so is aimed at graduate students that already have had an introductory course on quantum field theory. Among the topics hoped to be covered are: gauge invariance for massless spin-1 particles from special relativity and quantum mechanics; Ward identities; photon scattering and loops; UV and IR divergences and why they are handled differently; effective theories and the renormalization group; anomalies.
Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) is one of the greatest outcome of the Standard Model of Particle Physics when put next to ΛCDM cosmology. In this talk, I will first review the key aspects of standard BBN and illustrate a new code -- PRyMordial -- to make state-of-the-art predictions of primordial light-element abundances within and beyond the Standard Model. I will then highlight the latest measurements regarding the primordial abundance of helium-4 and deuterium, and present evidence at the 2 sigma level for a nonzero lepton asymmetry from BBN data jointly with the Cosmic Microwave Background. I will leave some final comments on how a large total lepton asymmetry can be consistently realized in the Early Universe.
One fruitful strategy of tackling quantum gravity is to adapt quantum field theory to the situation where spacetime geometry is dynamical, and to implement diffeomorphism symmetry in a way that is compatible with regularization and renormalization. It has taken a while to address the underlying technical and conceptual challenges and to chart a quantum field-theoretic path toward a theory of quantum gravity that is unitary, essentially unique and can produce "numbers" beyond perturbation theory. In this context, the formulation of Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT) is a quantum-gravitational analogue of what lattice QCD is to nonabelian gauge theory. Its nonperturbative toolbox builds on the mathematical principles of “random geometry” and allows us to shift emphasis from formal considerations to extracting quantitative results on the spectra of invariant quantum observables at or near the Planck scale. A breakthrough result of CDT quantum gravity in four dimensions is the emergence, from first principles, of a nonperturbative vacuum state with properties of a de Sitter universe. I will summarize these findings, highlight the nonlocal character of observables in quantum gravity and describe the interesting physics questions that are being tackled using the new notion of quantum Ricci curvature.