After a review of the axiomatic formulation of quantum theory, the generalized operational structure of the theory will be introduced (including POVM measurements, sequential measurements, and CP maps). There will be an introduction to the orthodox (sometimes called Copenhagen) interpretation of quantum mechanics and the historical problems/issues/debates regarding that interpretation, in particular, the measurement problem and the EPR paradox, and a discussion of contemporary views on these topics. The majority of the course lectures will consist of guest lectures from international experts covering the various approaches to the interpretation of quantum theory (in particular, many-worlds, de Broglie-Bohm, consistent/decoherent histories, and statistical/epistemic interpretations, as time permits) and fundamental properties and tests of quantum theory (such as entanglement and experimental tests of Bell inequalities, contextuality, macroscopic quantum phenomena, and the problem of quantum gravity, as time permits).