Description We will review the notion of entanglement in quantum mechanics form the point of view of information theory, and how to quantify it and distinguish it from classical correlations. We will derive Bell inequalities and discuss their importance, and how quantum information protocols can use entanglement as a resource. Then we will analyze measurement theory in quantum mechanics, the notion of generalized measurements and quantum channels and their importance in the processing and transmission of information. We will introduce the notions of quantum circuits and see some of the most famous algorithms in quantum information processing, as well as in quantum cryptography. We will also talk about the notion of distances and fidelity between states from the point of view of information theory and we will end with a little introduction to the notions of relativistic quantum information.
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