# Relating Wigner's Friend Scenarios to Nonclassical Causal Compatibility, Monogamy Relations, and Fine Tuning

### APA

Yīng, Y. (2024). Relating Wigner's Friend Scenarios to Nonclassical Causal Compatibility, Monogamy Relations, and Fine Tuning. Perimeter Institute. https://pirsa.org/24020054

### MLA

Yīng, Yìlè . Relating Wigner's Friend Scenarios to Nonclassical Causal Compatibility, Monogamy Relations, and Fine Tuning. Perimeter Institute, Feb. 08, 2024, https://pirsa.org/24020054

### BibTex

@misc{ pirsa_PIRSA:24020054, doi = {10.48660/24020054}, url = {https://pirsa.org/24020054}, author = {Ying, Y{\`\i}l{\`e}~}, keywords = {Quantum Foundations}, language = {en}, title = {Relating Wigner{\textquoteright}s Friend Scenarios to Nonclassical Causal Compatibility, Monogamy Relations, and Fine Tuning}, publisher = {Perimeter Institute}, year = {2024}, month = {feb}, note = {PIRSA:24020054 see, \url{https://pirsa.org}} }

Yìlè Yīng Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

## Abstract

Nonclassical causal modeling was developed in order to explain violations of Bell inequalities while adhering to relativistic causal structure and faithfulness -- that is, avoiding fine-tuned causal explanations. Recently, a no-go theorem stronger than Bell's theorem has been derived, based on extensions of Wigner's friend thought experiment: the Local Friendliness (LF) no-go theorem. Here we show that the LF no-go theorem poses formidable challenges for the field of causal modeling, even when nonclassical and/or cyclic causal explanations are considered. We first recast the LF inequalities, one of the key elements of the LF no-go theorem, as special cases of monogamy relations stemming from a statistical marginal problem; we then further recast LF inequalities as causal compatibility inequalities stemming from a nonclassical causal marginal problem, for a causal structure implied by well-motivated causal-metaphysical assumptions. We find that the LF inequalities emerge from the causal modeling perspective even when allowing the latent causes of observed events to admit post-quantum descriptions, such as Generalised Probabilistic Theories (GPT) or even more exotic theories. We further prove that no nonclassical causal model can explain violations of LF inequalities without violating the No Fine-Tuning principle. Finally, we note that these obstacles cannot be overcome even if one were to appeal to cyclic causal models.

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