Collection Number C08028
Collection Date
Collection Type Outreach
Here is your opportunity to experience, online, select content from Perimeter Institute's highly successful two-week International Summer School for Young Physicists (ISSYP). While we could reach up to 100 "young physicists" per year with our onsite ISSYP camps, our Virtual ISSYP opens up this fantastic learning experience for all to enjoy. The Virtual ISSYP is intended for students, teachers and anyone interested in learning more about the wonders of modern physics and the excitement of research and discovery at the frontiers of knowledge.

General Relativity 2 - Gravity is a Curvature

Michael Burns Waterloo Collegiate Institute (WRDSB)
Spacetime tells matter how to move, and matter tells spacetime how to curve.
Learning Outcomes:
• Why gravity can be seen as a curvature of spacetime.
• That Einstein’s field equations describe how matter curves spacetime.
• How Sir Arthur Eddington verified Einstein’s theory of general relativity by measuring the change in position of stars during a solar eclipse.

General Relativity 1 - Introduction of a New Idea

Michael Burns Waterloo Collegiate Institute (WRDSB)
We shift our ideas from Newton’s law of gravity to a new set of equations that describe how gravity is a consequence of the curvature of spacetime.
Learning Outcomes:
• John Michell and his hypothetical object called a dark star.
• How to determine the mass of a planet required for the escape velocity of an object to be the speed of light.
• Einstein’s Equivalence Principle.

General Relativity 4 - The Life Story of Stars

Michael Burns Waterloo Collegiate Institute (WRDSB)
The mathematical predictions made by scientists tell a story of the life and death of stars.
Learning Outcomes:
• How the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram describes the life cycle of stars.
• Depending on its mass, how a star ends its life as a white dwarf star, a neutron star, or a black hole, and where super novas fit in.
• How the mathematical predictions of white dwarf stars, super novas, and neutron stars are slowly verified by the advancement of the astronomical equipment used by astronomers.

General Relativity 3 - Who's Who in the Story of Black Holes

Michael Burns Waterloo Collegiate Institute (WRDSB)
An introduction to a few of the major scientists who applied Einstein's ideas to better understand the life cycle of various stars.
Learning Outcomes:
• How Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar resolved the paradox of the white dwarf star, and how Walter Baade and Fritz Zwicky described the dynamics of neutron stars.
• Yakov Zel'dovich develops the nuclear chain reaction that is the engine that keeps stars burning.

General Relativity 5 - The Black Hole

Michael Burns Waterloo Collegiate Institute (WRDSB)
The anatomy of a black hole.
Learning Outcomes:
• What are the mass requirements for a star to become a black hole?
• The anatomy of a Schwarzschild black hole, including the singularity and the event horizon.
• What a traveller would experience if he orbited a black hole, or had the bad luck to fall through the event horizon.

General Relativity 6 - The Star Called a Black Hole

Michael Burns Waterloo Collegiate Institute (WRDSB)
The physical attributes of a black hole and what types of physical evidence astronomers use the locate them.
Learning Outcomes:
• What are the physical requirements for a star to become a black hole, and what properties of that star remain after the black hole is formed?
• The types of black holes, including: the Schwarzschild black hole, the Reissner-Nordström black hole, the Kerr black hole, and the Kerr-Newman black hole.
• What a traveller would experience if he orbited one of these more general black holes, or fell through to the singularity.

Special Relativity 12 - Einstein's Rotating Disk Thought Experiment

Richard Epp University of Waterloo
Introduction to Einstein's famous rotating disk thought experiment, which he used to help him understand the true nature of gravity.
Learning Outcomes:
• Understanding that an observer placed at the edge of a rotating disk (or inside a rotating cylinder) experiences an artificial gravitational field related to his centripetal acceleration.
• Appreciating the ways in which this artificial gravitational field exactly mimics the real gravitational field we experience near the Earth's surface.

Special Relativity 13 - Artificial Gravity Provides Hints about Real Gravity

Richard Epp University of Waterloo
Analyzing the artificial gravitational field inside a rotating cylinder to discover hints about the nature of real gravitational fields.
Learning Outcomes:
• How to compare relativistic effects of an accelerated observer who is inside the rotating cylinder to observers at rest in the inertial reference frame outside the rotating cylinder.
• Understanding that the relative time dilation effect decreases as the rotating observer moves toward the axis of rotation, and how this suggests that a real gravitational field might warp time.

Special Relativity 14 - The Curved Geometry of a Rotating Space

Richard Epp University of Waterloo
The spacetime diagram of a rotating Bob is analyzed, leading us to conclude that his spatial geometry is curved.
Learning Outcomes:
• Understanding the physical effects of the rotation on the rotating observers, metal panels of the cylinder and so forth.
• Understanding the properties of a rotating cylinder using a spacetime diagram.
• Understanding curved spaces: The negatively curved space of a rotating observer and the positively curved space representing the real gravitational field of the Sun.