Collisions of false-vacuum bubble walls in a quantum spin chain


Milsted, A. (2021). Collisions of false-vacuum bubble walls in a quantum spin chain. Perimeter Institute. https://pirsa.org/21010021


Milsted, Ashley. Collisions of false-vacuum bubble walls in a quantum spin chain. Perimeter Institute, Jan. 26, 2021, https://pirsa.org/21010021


          @misc{ pirsa_21010021,
            doi = {10.48660/21010021},
            url = {https://pirsa.org/21010021},
            author = {Milsted, Ashley},
            keywords = {Condensed Matter, Quantum Foundations, Quantum Information},
            language = {en},
            title = {Collisions of false-vacuum bubble walls in a quantum spin chain},
            publisher = {Perimeter Institute},
            year = {2021},
            month = {jan},
            note = {PIRSA:21010021 see, \url{https://pirsa.org}}

Ashley Milsted California Institute of Technology


We study the real-time dynamics of a small bubble of "false vacuum'' in a quantum spin chain near criticality, where the low-energy physics is described by a relativistic (1+1)-dimensional quantum field theory. Such a bubble can be thought of as a confined kink-antikink pair (a meson). We carefully construct bubbles so that particle production does not occur until the walls collide. To achieve this in the presence of strong correlations, we extend a Matrix Product State (MPS) ansatz for quasiparticle wavepackets [Van Damme et al., arXiv:1907.02474 (2019)] to the case of confined, topological quasiparticles. By choosing the wavepacket width and the bubble size appropriately, we avoid strong lattice effects and observe relativistic kink-antikink collisions. We use the MPS quasiparticle ansatz to identify scattering outcomes: In the Ising model, with transverse and longitudinal fields, we do not observe particle production despite nonintegrability (supporting recent numerical observations of nonthermalizing mesonic states). With additional interactions, we see production of confined and unconfined particle pairs. Although we simulated these low-energy, few-particle events with moderate resources, we observe significant growth of entanglement with energy and with the number of collisions, suggesting that increasing either will ultimately exhaust our methods. Quantum devices, in contrast, are not limited by entanglement production, and promise to allow us to go far beyond classical methods. We anticipate that kink-antikink scattering in 1+1 dimensions will be an instructive benchmark problem for relatively near-term quantum devices.