# How much entanglement is needed for quantum error correction?

### APA

Li, Z. (2024). How much entanglement is needed for quantum error correction?. Perimeter Institute. https://pirsa.org/24050034

### MLA

Li, Zhi. How much entanglement is needed for quantum error correction?. Perimeter Institute, May. 28, 2024, https://pirsa.org/24050034

### BibTex

@misc{ pirsa_PIRSA:24050034, doi = {10.48660/24050034}, url = {https://pirsa.org/24050034}, author = {Li, Zhi}, keywords = {Quantum Information}, language = {en}, title = {How much entanglement is needed for quantum error correction?}, publisher = {Perimeter Institute}, year = {2024}, month = {may}, note = {PIRSA:24050034 see, \url{https://pirsa.org}} }

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

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Abstract

It is commonly believed that logical states of quantum error-correcting codes have to be highly entangled such that codes capable of correcting more errors require more entanglement to encode a qubit. Here we show that this belief may or may not be true depending on a particular code. To this end, we characterize a tradeoff between the code distance d quantifying the number of correctable errors, and geometric entanglement of logical states quantifying their maximal overlap with product states or more general ``topologically trivial" states. The maximum overlap is shown to be exponentially small in d for three families of codes: (1) low-density parity check (LDPC) codes with commuting check operators, (2) stabilizer codes, and (3) codes with a constant encoding rate. Equivalently, the geometric entanglement of any logical state of these codes grows at least linearly with d. On the opposite side, we also show that this distance-entanglement tradeoff does not hold in general. For any constant d and k (number of logical qubits), we show there exists a family of codes such that the geometric entanglement of some logical states approaches zero in the limit of large code length.