In recent years, there has been growing interest in cosmological first-order phase transitions in view of gravitational wave observations with space interferometers such as LISA. However, there is only limited understanding on the bubble dynamics and the gravitational wave signals arising from ultra-supercooled transitions (in which the released energy dominates the plasma energy, i.e., near-vacuum transitions), due to the highly relativistic nature of the transition.
In the conventional weakly-interacting massive particle (WIMP) paradigm the late-time density of dark matter (DM) is set by the rate of two-body annihilations, but there has been considerable recent interest in exploring alternative DM scenarios where other interactions control the final abundance. I will show that by fully exploring the parameter space of a simple, weakly-coupled dark sector, we can find a rich set of novel pathways which lead to the observed relic density of DM.
One of the puzzles that the newly data-rich fields of cosmology and astrophysics are most advantaged to tackle is the nature of the dark sector. In particular, a dark sector that thermalizes with the SM bath at some epoch has present-day observable properties that are directly tied to early-universe interactions.
Axion-like particles (ALPs) are one of the most attractive solutions to the dark matter issue. In this talk, I will discuss new ideas in the search for ALPs in astrophysical structures. In particular, I will focus on the emission associated with their decay into photons. The discussion will involve different ALP mass ranges and wavelength bands.
Rolling scalar fields play an important role in understanding cosmology within a particle physics framework. Coupling a rolling scalar field to light degrees of freedom gives rise to a thermal friction which, if large enough, induces a thermal bath. In the context of inflation the presence of such a thermal bath has compelling consequences as it significantly alters the usual observables, leading to a suppression of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r and a unique prediction for non-gaussianities.
I discuss a new approach to the Higgs naturalness problem, where the value of the Higgs mass is tied to cosmic stability and the possibility of a large observable Universe. The Higgs mixes with the dilaton of a CFT sector whose true ground state has a large negative vacuum energy. If the Higgs VEV is non-zero and below O(TeV), the CFT also admits a second metastable vacuum, where the expansion history of the Universe is conventional.
Ultimate Hadron Colliders: What is feasible? What is affordable? How to maximize reach for new gauge fields?
The potential for discovering new gauge fields of nature relies upon extending the collision energy of hadron colliding beams as far as possible beyond the present 14 TeV capability of LHC. We must seek a balance of minimum cost/TeV for the ring of superconducting magnets, feasibility and cost of a tunnel to contain the ring, and balancing the luminosity against synchrotron radiation. Balancing feasibility, technology, and cost is crucial if there is to be a high-energy frontier for discovery of new gauge fields. Three design cases exhibit the tricky balance among these parameters:
Hoop conjecture suggests that microscopic black holes can be produced in collisions of high energy particles if the fundamental gravity scale is lowered to the electroweak scale in extra dimension models. This opens up the possibility of studying extra dimensions in collliders and neutrino telescopes. In this talk, I will introduce the unique signatures associated with black holes from cosmic neutrino-nucleon scattering in IceCube-Gen2. These signatures include new topologies, distinct energy distributions and unusual ratios of hadronic-to-electronic energy deposition.