Typicality, the feature that almost any microstate living in the microcanonical subspace cannot be locally distinguished from a thermal ensemble, lies at the fundamental part of statistical physics. However, one may wonder if there exists a sufficient amount of orthogonal atypical states to account for the whole entropy.

In this talk, we show that, in some physical systems, there exists a sufficient amount of certain orthogonal atypical states to account for the leading order of the entropy in the following two scenarios, by finding proper upper bounds of the entanglement of formation (EoF) for each case and applying other techniques from quantum information theory.

In the first scenario, the physical system under consideration is AdS black holes at the semiclassical limit G_N —> 0. In this case, microcanonical subspace is the subspace formed by the black hole microstates, and typical states are usually considered to have a smooth horizon as well as the black hole interior. We consider a class of atypical states called disentangled states which have large entanglement deficits compared to typical states such that they cannot have smooth horizons. In this scenario, we use a geometric quantity called entanglement wedge cross section to give upper bounds to EoF.

In the second scenario, we consider generic quantum many-body systems with short-ranged interactions at the standard thermodynamic limit V —> ∞. In this case, it is known that typical microstates have volume law entanglement. We consider area-law entangled microstates as atypical states. We use reflected entropy to give upper bounds to EoF.

We will also discuss the relations of our results with the additivity conjectures and atypical black hole microstate counting.

This talk is based on 2211.11787.

Zoom link: https://pitp.zoom.us/j/94823687961?pwd=V3QrSjUrTklheG1iU0RsckwzQmRTUT09