States of Low Energy (SLEs) have been constructed in cosmological spacetimes as the ones that minimize the mode contribution to the regularized energy density. These have been shown to be an adequate choice of vacuum state for primordial perturbations in models that include a period of kinetic domination prior to inflation. This is precisely the case in Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC). In this talk we will review the construction and properties of SLEs for a general FLRW model and explore their application to LQC.
The "infrared problem" is the generic emission of an infinite number of low-frequency quanta in any scattering process with massless fields. The "out" state contains an infinite number of such quanta which implies that it does not lie in the standard Fock representation. Consequently, the standard S-matrix is undefined as a map between "in" and "out" states in the standard Fock space. This fact is due to the existence of a low-frequency tail of the radiation field i.e. the memory effect. In massive QED, the Faddeev-Kulish representations have been argued to yield an I.R. finite S-matrix. We clarify the "preferred " status of such representations as eigenstates of the conserved "large gauge charge'' at spatial infinity. We prove a "No-Go" theorem for the existence of a suitable Hilbert space analogously constructed in massless QED, QCD, linearized quantum gravity with massive/massless sources, and in full quantum gravity. We then suggest an "infrared-finite" formulation of scattering theory in terms of correlation functions without any a priori choice of "in/out" Hilbert spaces.
Quantum complexity is emerging as a key property of many-body systems, including black holes, topological materials, and early quantum computers. A state's complexity quantifies the number of computational gates required to prepare the state from a simple tensor product. The greater a state's distance from maximal complexity, or ``uncomplexity,'' the more useful the state is as input to a quantum computation. Separately, resource theories -- simple models for agents subject to constraints -- are burgeoning in quantum information theory. We unite the two domains, confirming Brown and Susskind's conjecture that a resource theory of uncomplexity can be defined. The allowed operations, fuzzy operations, are slightly random implementations of two-qubit gates chosen by an agent. We formalize two operational tasks, uncomplexity extraction and expenditure. Their optimal efficiencies depend on an entropy that we engineer to reflect complexity. We also present two monotones, uncomplexity measures that decline monotonically under fuzzy operations, in certain regimes. This work unleashes on many-body complexity the resource-theory toolkit from quantum information theory.
Based on 2203.09537. In the context of toy models of holography arising from 3d Chern-Simons theory, I will describe an approach in which, rather than summing over bulk geometries, one gauges a one-form global symmetry of the bulk theory. This ensures that the bulk theory has no global symmetries, and it makes the partition function on spacetimes with boundaries coincide with that of a modular-invariant 2d CFT on the boundary. In particular, on wormhole geometries one finds a factorized answer for the partition function.
Topics will include (but are not limited to): Canonical formulation of constrained systems, The Dirac program, First order formalism of gravity, Loop Quantum Gravity, Spinfoam models, Research at PI and other approaches to quantum gravity.
Certifying quantum properties with minimal assumptions is a fundamental problem in quantum information science. Self-testing is a method to infer the underlying physics of a quantum experiment only from the measured statistics. While all bipartite pure entangled states can be self-tested, little is known about how to self-test quantum states of an arbitrary number of systems. Here, we introduce a framework for network-assisted self-testing and use it to self-test any pure entangled quantum state of an arbitrary number of systems. The scheme requires the preparation of a number of singlets that scales linearly with the number of systems, and the implementation of standard projective and Bell measurements, all feasible with current technology. When all the network constraints are exploited, the obtained self-testing certification is stronger than what is achievable in any Bell-type scenario. Our work does not only solve an open question in the field but also shows how properly designed networks offer new opportunities for the certification of quantum phenomena.
This course will introduce some advanced topics in general relativity related to describing gravity in the strong field and dynamical regime. Topics covered include properties of spinning black holes, black hole thermodynamics and energy extraction, how to define horizons in a dynamical setting, formulations of the Einstein equations as constraint and evolution equations, and gravitational waves and how they are sourced.
Topics will include (but are not limited to):
- Quantum error correction in quantum gravity and condensed matter
- Quantum information scrambling and black hole information
- Physics of random tensor networks and random unitary circuits