This lecture is devoted to Noether’s theorems and the study of the interplay between symmetries and conservation laws, from ordinary mechanics to general relativity. In order to start on a common ground and interest a broad audience, we will begin with a review of Noether’s (first) theorem in ordinary non-relativistic mechanics. This will enable us to settle some subtleties, agree on conventions, and especially explore some curious and lesser-known symmetry features of familiar models (such as particles and celestial mechanics). We will then move on to field theory, and discuss the construction of conserved currents and energy-momentum tensors. This will include a discussion of conserved quantities in general relativity. Finally, we will turn to the core of the topic, which is Noether’s (second) theorem for gauge symmetries. After recalling the basic properties of gauge theories in Lagrangian and Hamiltonian form, we will derive the consequences of gauge symmetry for the construction of conserved charges. For this, we will introduce the so-called covariant phase space formalism, which enables to construct symmetry charges and algebras, and derive (non) conservation laws. This will be illustrated in Maxwell’s theory and in general relativity. In particular, we will focus in depth on the example of three-dimensional gravity as an exactly soluble model in which all aspects of symmetries can be understood. We will end with an outlook towards the notion of asymptotic symmetries and their use in classical and quantum gravity.
Ideally, the audience should be familiar with:
basic features of general relativity
In this talk, I present the latest works on anyonic information theory and how it is linked to aspects of quantum foundations. First, the theory of 2+1 D non-abelian anyons will be introduced. The newly discovered notion of anyonic creation operators will be presented, as well as their use as local elements of reality within the Deutsch-Hayden interpretation of quantum mechanics. Lastly, I will show strange properties of anyonic entanglement that appear due to the lack of a tensor product structure, such as the different spectra of marginals in bipartite systems. This property makes the Von Neumann entropy a bad entanglement measure. I will explain the challenges of defining entanglement measures for anyonic systems and current approaches.
Extensions of asymptotic phase spaces and their corresponding asymptotic symmetry groups have become a topic of increasing interest in recent years, due to results that connect them with a wide spectrum of areas, such as symmetries of the S-matrix, soft theorems, corner symmetries, double copy maps and celestial holography. The study of these extensions aims to characterize the degrees of freedom of the physical theories at the classical level, gathering information on how their symmetries can be upgraded to the quantum theories. In this talk, I will describe extensions of phase spaces at null infinity for gravity and gauge theories, such that the charges are consistent with tree-level soft (graviton, gluon or photon) theorems and act canonically. First, as motivation, I will show how the Geroch group for cylindrically symmetric general relativity can be upgraded as a quantum symmetry, exploiting the integrability of the system (arXiv:1906.04856 [gr-qc]). Second, I will review the construction of an extended phase space where the generalized BMS symmetry group acts canonically (arXiv:2002.06691 [gr-qc]). I will show that this construction is consistent with the extended corner symmetry approach (via the embedding maps). Finally, I will show that a similar approach can be done in Yang Mills, by extending the phase space with "Goldstone modes" that transform inhomogeneously under linearized O(r) symmetries (arXiv:2111.00973 [hep-th]). Some preliminary results regarding the extension to higher order O(r^n) will be discussed (arXiv:2211.12991 [hep-th]).
The Event Horizon Telescope has released total intensity images of the Messier 87* and Sagittarius A* accretion flows; polarized images have been released for M 87*, and are imminent for Sgr A*. These images are a rich source of theoretical constraints on the black hole accretion flow system, but a trustworthy measurement of either black hole's spin remains elusive. Spin nonetheless remains a high priority, as the black hole angular momentum is deeply linked to mechanisms of energy extraction and galactic co-evolution. In my talk, I will discuss my work on providing theoretical traction on supermassive black hole spin, and will review the state of spin measurements using existing and future EHT data, including measurements of the black hole photon ring, inference of near-horizon magnetic field structure, and next-generation spacetime/emissivity inference codes.
In spite of its immense importance in the present-day information technology, the foundational aspects of quantum theory (QT) remain still elusive. In particular, there is no such set of physically motivated axioms which can answer why Hilbert space formalism is the only natural choice to describe the microscopic world. Hence, to shed light on the unique formalism of QT, two different operational frameworks will be described in the primitive of various convex operational theories. The first one refers to a kinematical symmetry principle which would be proposed from the perspective of single copy state discrimination and it would be shown that this symmetry holds for both classical and QT – two successful descriptions of the physical world. On the other hand, studying a wide range of convex operational theories, namely the General Probabilistic Theories (GPTs) with polygonal state spaces, we observe the absence of such symmetry. Thus, the principle deserves its own importance to mark a sharp distinction between the physical and unphysical theories. Thereafter, a distributed computing scenario will be introduced for which the other convex theories except the QT turn out to be equivalent to the classical one even though the theories possess more exotic state and effect spaces. We have coined this particular operational framework as ‘Distributed computation with limited communication’ (DCLC). Furthermore, it will be shown that the distributed computational strength of quantum communication will be justified in terms of a stronger version of this task, namely the ‘Delayed choice distributed computation with limited communication’ (DC2LC). The proposed task thus provides a new approach to operationally single out quantum theory in the theory-space and hence promises a novel perspective towards the axiomatic derivation of Hilbert space quantum mechanics.
Phys. Rev. A (Rapid)100, 060101 (2019)
Ann. Phys.(Berlin)2020,532, 2000334 (2020)