The past decade has witnessed tremendous advancements in the size, coherence and control accuracy of qubits across various material platforms. In the case of superconducting qubits fabricated from Josephson junctions, quantum systems with over 50 qubits and >99% gate fidelities can now be reliably fabricated. In this talk, I will introduce the basics of superconducting qubits, with a particular focus on the implementation and calibration of two-qubit gates. I will then describe an experiment demonstrating quantum computational advantage on a specific task, namely sampling from random quantum circuits comprising 53 qubits [1]. The success of this experiment hinges on the chaotic dynamics underlying the random circuits, which generates sufficiently large entanglement to challenge classical simulation within the coherence times of the qubits. To systematically study the physics of quantum chaos, we perform a second experiment which investigates the “fingerprints” of chaos on local quantum observables [2]. We demonstrate how the two fundamental mechanisms of quantum chaos, operator spreading and operator entanglement, may be diagnosed by reversing the flow of time and measuring the so-called out-of-time-order correlators (OTOCs). Additionally, we find that with proper error-mitigation strategies, even local quantum observables such as OTOCs may be measured up to accuracies requiring non-trivial classical computational resources to simulate. These works pave a critical path toward using quantum computers for scientific discovery in the NISQ era.

[1] Google Quantum AI, Nature **574**, 505 (2019).

[2] X. Mi *et al.*, Science **374**, 1479 (2021).

Zoom Link: https://pitp.zoom.us/j/93446337538?pwd=UXpsUFZ4M0tDSDd6bnA0VFBsazNPQT09